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Dental Hygiene Research Meeting - Non Surgical Periodontal Treatment: Associations between Oral Biofilm/Dental Plaque and Life threatening Diseases

The importance of proper oral hygiene for the quality of your life

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, Release date: Monday, March 04, 2013

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Non surgical periodontal treatment is the most important responsibility for dental hygienists. Today we are getting more and more information about the possible association between amount of dental plaque and periodontal disease and life threatening diseases.

Dental plaque/Oral Biofilm

Dental plaque is made up of a film of bacteria, which covers the surfaces of the teeth, including the gaps between the teeth and gums More than 700 of bacterial species have been identified in the human oral cavity and most of them in dental plaque. The total number of microbial cells in subgingival plaque is estimated to be 33x108 in healthy subjects, compared with 174x108  in periodontitis patients. It leads to tooth decay, gum inflammation and in some cases to a chronic inflammation caused by dental plaque. Micro-organisms and their metabolites from tooth surfaces, periodontal pockets and mouth mucosa enter into the blood stream triggering systemic reactions detrimental to systemic health and hence associate with a number of diseases. 

 
Chronic infection and Inflammation
 
Chronic infection and inflammation are considered to be risk factors in the development of not only periodontitis but also in the development of many systemic diseases, and predispose some subjects to e.g. the atherosclerotic and cancer process. 
 
Gingival inflammation and Periodontitis
 
Periodontal disease is among the most commonly occurring infections in man. It is estimated that mild to moderate  periodontis affects 20% to 50%, and severe, generalized periodontitis is seen in 5-20% of the adult population in the industrialized countries suffer from this multi-factorial illness.  Periodontal disease is a unique and silent infection with potentially profound effects on general health. Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of periodontitis and it increases its severity although bacterial pathogens are required to initiate the disease process. However it has become evident that without the inflammatory host reaction, the presence of bacterial pathogens alone is not sufficient to cause tissue destruction that occurs in the course of periodontitis. It has been suggested that in individuals with poor oral health, the reaction to bacteria may lead to an excessive host response resulting in systemic inflammatory reaction. 
 
Life threatening Diseases
 
Chronic infection and inflammation caused by dental plaque and periodontitis has the potential to trigger systemic reactions and could probably lead to malignant transformation in a variety of tissues. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process in which infection and inflammation have been estimated to play a role in 15-20% of all malignancies. Atherosclerosis is a low-grade chronic systemic inflammation that has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Inflammation has a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; it is presumably involved in the initiation, but also in the progression to infarction.
 
Plaque Control  
 
Tooth brushing remains the main stay of oral health measures in the western world. However, despite the widespread use of both toothbrushes and interdental aids, the majority of the population do not clean their teeth thoroughly enough to prevent plaque accumulation. Patients are expected to take an active part and apply self-care preventive measures. The roles of the oral health profession are most important in guiding the patient in how to perform self-care that contributes to the oral health status. This requires the caregiver to be patient-centered and to have good communication skills. Changing health behaviors is a challenge for both the patient and the dental hygienist or dentist.  
 

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Prof. 

Birgitta Söder

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Birgitta Söder, professor em., in Odontological prophylaxis at the Karolinska Institutet, Department of Dental Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden and former head of the dental hygiene program. Research activities involve epidemiological and clinical studies of the relationship between dental plaque- oral hygiene, gingival inflammation – periodontitis and systemic diseases, particularly the role of oral infections in cardiovascular diseases and cancer, including systemic makers relating cardiovascular and cancer diseases and periodontitis as well as the role of bacterial interactions. Other research areas of interest are the influence of anxiety and stress-related mental depression on periodontal health as well as tobacco related periodontal diseases. The overall goal is prevention of gingival inflammation and periodontitis. Former President of the International Association for Dental Research: Oral health Research Group and former councillor for International Association for Dental Research and American Dental Association.

 
Awards:
  • 1998 awarded the IADR Oral health Research Group Award
  • 2004 IFDH (International Federation for Dental Hygiene), Research award
  • 2007 SUNSTAR International Research Award
  • 2010 SUNSTAR International Research Award
 
External research grants
  • Scientific collaboration
  • Collaborations with other institutions at KI
  • Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
  • Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Section for Prevention of Personal Injury
  • Department of Medicine, and Centre for Molecular Medicine Karolinska University Hospital
International projects
  • University of Hong Kong, Prins Philips Hospital Hong Kong, China, Department of Periodontology. Studies on chronic inflammation/infection due to dental plaque, gingival inflammation and periodontal disease as risk factors for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Inflammatory mediators and defencins are specially studied and compared with oral clinical data in the study population.
  • University of Helsinki, Institute of Dentistry and Biomedicum, Helsinki, Finland. Studies on chronic inflammation/infection due to dental plaque, gingival inflammation and periodontal disease as risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer and other systemic diseases with
  • inflammatory background. Ongoing studies on micro-organisms and their metabolites from tooth surfaces, periodontal pockets and mouth mucosa enter into the blood stream triggering systemic reactions detrimental to systemic health and hence associate with a number of diseases. We further anticipate that these reactions are different between women and men.
  • University of Boston, Boston, USA.
  • Epidemiological studies on chronic inflammation in the periodontal tissue related to systemic diseases as well as metaanalysis.
  • University of Pisa, Italien
Studies regarding the association between periodontal disease and diabetes
  • Chief supervisor or Joint supervisor for doctoral candidates
  • Chief supervisor: 2 Doctoral candidates, completed their doctoral theses 2006
  • Chief supervisor: 1 Doctoral candidate, completed the theses 2012
  • Joint supervisor: 1 Doctoral candidate, completed the doctoral theses, 1999
  • Chief supervisor: 2 Doctoral candidates, completed their Licentiat degree, 2003, 2005
  • Joint supervisor: 1 Doctoral candidate completed the Licentiate degree, 2005
  • Joint supervisor: 2 Doctoral candidate, under education
  • Chief supervisor for numerous of bachelors and master students.
  • Former member of the editorial board Int J Dental Hygiene,
  • Member of Examination Bodies
Many referee duties:
  • Involvements in International Association of Dental Research
  • Co-author for Dental Hygiene Theory and Practice, edition 3 and 4
  • Invited speaker
  • Invited speaker both international and national
  • Scientific papers in per reviewd journals
  • About 70 scientific reports with published abstracts
  • About 50 scientific papers published in per reviewed journals
 
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