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Identification and management of passive eruption


, Release date: Wednesday, October 24, 2012, Expiration date: Saturday, October 24, 2015

CE Article



Upon completion of this course, the clinician will be able to:

  1. Understand altered passive eruption and how to identify it.
  2. Understand treatment options to correct altered passive eruption.
  3. Access cosmetic evaluations better with an understanding of how the gingival tissue affects the overall result.
  4. Better understand the necessary steps to achieve predictable esthetic results.
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  3. Weinberg MA, Eskow RN.: An overview of delayed passive eruption. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2000 Jun;21(6):511–514, 516, 518 passim; quiz 522. 
  4. Morley J: Altering Gingival Level: The Restorative Connections Part I: Biologic Variables. J Am. Dent. Assoc. 132(1): 39–45, 2001.
  5. Glassman S: Cosmetic Treatment of The Gummy Smile. Contemp Esthet Restor Pract. 5(1): 58–61, 2001.
  6. Rufenacht C: Fundamentals of Esthetics. Carol Stream. Illinois: Quintessence, 1960.
  7. Silverstein LH, Shatz PC, Baker K: Subgingival Tecnology To Enhance the Therapeutic Outcome During Surgical and Restorative Phases of Smile Reconstruction. Contemp Esthet Restor Practice. July, pp 40–47, 2002.
  8. Levine RA, Randel H: Multidisciplinary Approach to Solving Cosmetic Dilemmas in the Esthetic Zone. Contemp Esthet Restor Pract 5(6): 62–67, 2001.
  9. Kokich VG: Esthetics and Anterior Tooth Position: An Orthodontic Perspective, Part III: Mediolateral Relationships. J Esthet Dent. 5,pp 200–207, 1993.
  10. Rufenacht C: Structural Esthetic Rules. In: Fundamentals Of Esthetics. Quintessence Publishing, Chicago, Illinois, 67, p.134, 1992.
  11. Carranza FA, Newman MG: Clinical Periodontology, Eigth Edition. WB Saunders Company. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania pp. 720–722, 1996.
  12. Kois JC: The Restorative-Periodontal Interface: Biological Parameters. J. Periodontal, 11:29–38, 1996.
  13. Goldstein RE: Esthetics in Dentistry. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, pp. 425–455, 1976.
  14. Smukler H,Chaibi M: Periodontal and Dental Considerations in Clinical Crown Extension. A Rational Basis for Treatment. Int J. Periodont Rest Dent, 17(5):464–477,1997.
  15. Hirshfeld I: A Study Of Skulls in the American Museum of Natural History In Relation to Periodontal Disease. J. Dent. Res. 5:241, 1923. 
  16. Weinman JP, Sicher H: Bone and Bones. Fundamentals of Bone Biology. 2nd Ed. St Louis, CV Mosby, 1955.
  17. Hermann JS, Cochran DL, Nummikoski PV, Buser D: Crestal Bone Changes Around Titianium Implants. A Radiographic Evaluation of Unloaded NonSubmerged and Submerged Implants in the Canine Model. J. Periodontol, 68(11):1117–1130, 1997.
  18. Saadoun AP, Le Gall MG,Touti B: Current Trends in Implantology:PartII- Treatment Planning,aesthetic considerations, and Tissue regeneration, Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 16(10): 707–714, 2004.
  19. Rosneberg ES, Cho SC, Garber DA: Crown Lebgthening Revisited . Compend Contin Educ Dent. 20(6): 527–534, 1999.
  20. Garnick JJ, Silverstein LH. Clark’s Clinical Dentistry. Vol.3 JB Lippincott. Philadelphia. Chapter 2B- Periodontal Probing- What Does It Mean?, pp. 115, 1997.
  21. Ten Cate AR: The Development of the Periodontium. In Melcher AH, BowenWH,eds. Biology of the Periodontium. New York, Academic Press, 1969.
  22. Spear FA: The Esthetic Management of Multiple Missing Anterior teeth. Inside Dentisty. Vol.3 No.1, pp. 72–76, 2007.
  23. Kokich VG, Kokich VO: Interrelationship of Orthodontics With Periodontics and restorative dentistry. In: Nanda R,ed. Biomechanics and Esthetic Strategies in Clinical Orthodontics, St Louis: Elsevier: 348–373, 2005.
  24. Silverstein LH, Garnick JJ, Stein SH, Singh B: Medication-Indiced Gingival Enlargement: A Clinical Review. General Dentistry,Scientific Journal, 371–378, August, 1997.
  25. Silverstein LH, et al. ; Nifedipine_ Induced Gingival Enlargement Around Dental Implants: A Clinical Report, J. Oral. Implantol. 21(2):116–120, 1995.
  26. Sterrett JD, Oliver T, Robinson F, Fortson W, Knaak B, Russell CM: Width/Length Ratios of Normal Clinical Crowns of the Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Man. J. Clin. Periodontol. 26(3):153–157, 1999.
  27. Spears FM, Kokich VG, Mathews DP: Interdisciplinary Mangement of Anterior Dental Esthetics. JADA. Vol.37, pp. 160–169, Feb, 2006.
  28. Ahmad I: Geometric Considerations in Anterior Dental Esthetics: Restorative Principles. Prac Periodontics Aesthet Dent, 10(7):851–855, 1996.
  29. Glassman S. Cosmetic treatment of the gummy smile. Contemporary Esthetics and Restorative Practice. 2001;5(1):58–61.
  30. Livaditis GJ. Comparison of monopolar and bipolar electrosurgical modes for restorative dentistry: a review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent. 2001;86(4):390–399.
  31. Malis LI. Electrosurgery and bipolar technology. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(1 Suppl):1–12. 
  32. Malis LI. Atraumatic bloodless removal of intramedullary hemangioblastomas of the spinal cord. J Neurosurg. 2002;97(1 Suppl):¬¬1–6.
  33. Tucker RD, Hollenhorst MJ. Bipolar electrosurgical devices. Endosc Surg Allied Technol. 1993;1(2):110–113.


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Dr. Gregori M. Kurtzman is in private general practice in Silver Spring, Md., and a former assistant clinical professor at University of Maryland. He has lectured internationally on the topics of restorative dentistry, endodontics and implant surgery and prosthetics, removable and fixed prosthetics, and periodontics and has over 350 published articles. He has earned fellowship in the AGD, AAIP, ACD, ICOI, Pierre Fauchard, ADI, mastership in the AGD and ICOI and diplomat status in the ICOI and American Dental Implant Association (ADIA). Kurtzman has been honored to be included in the “Top Leaders in Continuing Education” by Dentistry Today annually since 2006 and was featured on their June 2012 cover.

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